Leadership and management must go hand in hand. They are not the same thing. But they are necessarily linked, and complementary. Any effort to separate the two is likely to cause more problems than it solves.
Still, much ink has been spent delineating the differences. The manager’s job is to plan, organize and coordinate. The leader’s job is to inspire and motivate. In his 1989 book “On Becoming a Leader,” Warren Bennis composed a list of the differences:
– The manager administers; the leader innovates.
– The manager is a copy; the leader is an original.
– The manager maintains; the leader develops.
– The manager focuses on systems and structure; the leader focuses on people.
– The manager relies on control; the leader inspires trust.
– The manager has a short-range view; the leader has a long-range perspective.
– The manager asks how and when; the leader asks what and why.
– The manager has his or her eye always on the bottom line; the leader’s eye is on the horizon.
– The manager imitates; the leader originates.
– The manager accepts the status quo; the leader challenges it.
– The manager is the classic good soldier; the leader is his or her own person.
– The manager does things right; the leader does the right thing.
Perhaps there was a time when the calling of the manager and that of the leader could be separated. A foreman in an industrial-era factory probably didn’t have to give much thought to what he was producing or to the people who were producing it. His or her job was to follow orders, organize the work, assign the right people to the necessary tasks, coordinate the results, and ensure the job got done as ordered. The focus was on efficiency.
But in the new economy, where value comes increasingly from the knowledge of people, and where workers are no longer undifferentiated cogs in an industrial machine, management and leadership are not easily separated. People look to their managers, not just to assign them a task, but to define for them a purpose. And managers must organize workers, not just to maximize efficiency, but to nurture skills, develop talent and inspire results.
The late management guru Peter Drucker was one of the first to recognize this truth, as he was to recognize so many other management truths. He identified the emergence of the “knowledge worker,” and the profound differences that would cause in the way business was organized.
With the rise of the knowledge worker, “one does not ‘manage’ people,” Mr. Drucker wrote. “The task is to lead people. And the goal is to make productive the specific strengths and knowledge of every individual.”
Leadership Evaluation Guidelines
Behaviors/Values to Measure "HOW"
ï‚· Vision – Clearly and simply communicates the Strategic Plan and their own division vision. Inspires and energizes others to commit to the Strategic Plan. Leads by example.
ï‚· Ownership – Reinforces the Strategic Plan in all operational activities. Communicates organization's challenges in a positive manner. Uses expertise to effectively influence the behavior/decisions of College leadership. Accept responsibility for failures and successes.
ï‚· Constituent Focused – Listens to their constituency and assigns the highest priority to their satisfaction, including internal constituencies. Demonstrated broad campus knowledge/perspective with other departments and leaders. Breaks down barriers and develops influential relationships across campus. Makes decisions, which reflect the campus, President and Board of Trustee perspectives.
ï‚· Accountability/Integrity – Adheres to highest standards of ethics. Follows and promotes campus policies and procedures ("does the right thing"). Actions consistent with words ("walk the talk"). Absolutely trusted by others. Delivers on commitments to constituents, leaders and employees. Demonstrates courage/selfconfidence to stand for beliefs, ideas, and staff.
ï‚· Inspires Excellence – Continuously seeks new ways to improve the work environment both practices and processes. Strives to improve her/his own areas of relative weakness and assumes responsibilities for own mistakes. Sets challenging standards and expectations for excellent performance. Recognizes and rewards achievement. Fully utilizes team members of all cultures, races and genders.
ï‚· Positively Stimulates Change – Creates real and positive change. Sees change as an opportunity.
Questions the status quo. Implements new and better ways of doing things. Promotes alternative points
of view as being essential to positive change.
ï‚· Teamwork – Functions effectively both as a leader and as a team member. Respects the talent and
contributions of all team members. Creates an environment where everyone feels able to participate.
Links goals of own organization, team members with Strategic Plan. Respects diversity of opinion in
constituency, peers, and subordinates. Enthusiastically supports the team, even during bad times.
Assumes responsibility for the team's mistakes. Settles problems without alienating others.
ï‚· Self-Confidence – Acknowledges strengths and limitations, seeks candid feedback from peers.
Maintains an even disposition when things are not going well. Treats all others with respect, fairness and dignity. Shares problems and concerns openly and honestly. Shares information across traditional
boundaries and is open to new ideas.
ï‚· Communications – Explains Strategic Plan and other College initiatives and messages to members of organization. Communicates in an open, candid, clear, complete, consistent, interactive manner – initiates response/discussion. Listens effectively, demonstrates genuine interest in others.
ï‚· Development Skills – Structures jobs/assignments for employee development and growth. Shares
knowledge, information and expertise with team members. Positively sets challenging goals that stretch current performance levels and drives new skill development. Gives frequent, candid coaching/feedback on performance and career development. Documents results. Treats everyone with dignity, trust and respect.
ï‚· Motivation – Motivates others around them to perform and behave at their highest level. Inspires through words and actions.
ï‚· Empowerment – Delegates important tasks, not just what she/he does not want to do. Gives authority commensurate with responsibility, and resources necessary to get the job done. Promotes visibility of staff/team members and peers, gives credit where due. Fully utilizes diversity of team members to achieve departmental and campus success.